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Pakistan has experienced floods every year since 2010. This has caused heavy losses for people and the country’s economy. The 2010 mega-flood inundated one fifth of the country, killed over 1,600 people and caused over US$10 billion in damages. Experts blame the government’s weak water management policies and poor flood control systems. They also point to the country’s lack of water storage facilities, which means floodwater is wasted every year.

Pakistan’s media have taken a different stance: reports in major newspapers have alleged that current floods in Pakistan – which have left swathes of the country under water and displaced thousands of people – have been worsened because Indian authorities opened the gates of the Baglihar dam on the Chenab river in the Indus basin. However, the Pakistan Meteorological Department has refuted claims stating clearly that floods were due to heavy rainfall, not the actions of India upstream.

So where did these claims come from? Umar Asghar from the Daily Express argues anti India news boosts ratings and readership numbers. Majid Siddiqui, a senior journalist and executive producer at the TV channel Abbtak, says the Indian media uses similar tactics in its anti-Pakistan rhetoric. Politics, extremism and terrorism make headlines, he adds, while issues like water resources are not often discussed in the media.

Afia Salam, senior journalist and media analyst argues historical tensions between India and Pakistan play a big role: “We have to look at the historic anti-Indian sentiment in Punjab and the tale of handing over three rivers to India under the Indus Water Treaty. What’s worse is that journalists talk to politicians instead of experts,” Salam said.

In Pakistan perception India is responsible for flooding downstream is widespread, although experts disagree. Claims current floods were due to India opening the gates of the Baglihar dam on the Chenab are untrue, says Mr Arshad Abbasi, a water expert and advisor for Water and Energy in Sustainable Policy Institute (SDPI).  However, India’s construction of the dam  – along with a number of other dams – does violate the Indus Water Treaty, he added. Under the treaty, signed by both countries in 1960, Pakistan holds the right to the water of the three western rivers in the Indus basin (the Indus, Jhelum and Chenab) and the rights to the eastern rivers belong to India. India argues the dams are run-of-the-river facilities and fall within their rights under the treaty.

But what is Pakistan doing to protect itself from floods by managing its own rivers?   “We are simply doing nothing”, said Abbasi. “ We neither build new dams, nor can we stop the Indian violations. People holding important posts are totally unaware about the dangers Pakistan is facing due to climate change. We have witnessed heavy rains across the country in a relatively short period. Although we need to be on high alert, we do nothing except make plans on paper.

Dr. Parvez Amir, water expert and former member of the Prime Minister’s Task Force on Climate Change, agrees, “The danger of climatic change is imminent. It cannot be evaded by burying our heads in the sand and placing all the blame on India is no solution either.”

Pakistan and India have taken drastically different approaches to managing their water resources. Pakistan has not built any water reservoirs since the Tarbela and Mangla dams were built in the 1960s and 70s. Meanwhile, India has built hundreds of dams, reservoirs and barrages to provide water to its desert areas over the past four decades. As a result, India has the capacity to store enough water for 100-120 days, while Pakistan can only store 25-days worth of water, says Amir.

Pakistan urgently needs to build more water storage to reduce the impact of flooding and save water to use during periods of drought. “We have nine sites on the River Indus which we can use to store water,” Amir pointed out. “This water was enough to store and fill eight dams the size of Tarbela [which holds 14.3 km3 of water]. Even if we cannot construct big dams, we could have increased the storage capacity by making barrages and big lakes to save water.”

Pakistan is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to climate change. The devastating 2010 floods affected almost 20 million people – more people than the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the Haiti earthquake combined, according to the UN.

4 comments

  1. As long as there is a political divide between major political parties on "Kala Bagh” we will be facing dire consequences. One view is politicians who oppose it are being highly bribed in Billions by India, on the contrary PML(N) is also accused to have soft corner for India due to their leadership’s personal interests. Then their is a big divide between Political Civil administration and Pakistan Armed Forces’ decision makers on anything and everything concerning India-Pakistan relations. Without accusing anyone I would say, and agree to some extent with the author of this article that we definitively haven’t done homework on building new Dams in Pakistan. At the same time India never let any opportunity go to prove Pakistan a failed State and unfortunately there are many political and Media persons or groups who intentionally or unintentionally support Indian cause. Long Live Pakistan!

    1. Well Dude,

      U hv comfortably accused India of malice against Pak. Supposedly, if I even agree to it then do explain what is the core reason of India focusing on death of Pakistan? Do u really think, India who aspires to be among the Global Leaders wud not want to 1st show regional leadership by being a major catalyst in SAARC development n progress. Doesnt it kills Indian gameplan by trying to fail Pak? Or Do u think that India is so much into jingoism that since Pak is a Muslim nation of Subcontinent and India as a Hindu country emits its sheer hatred towards Pakistan? (correction: Unlike Pakistan, Indian administrations dont think on lines of religion).

      Point is, Pakistan is much more obsessed with India than India ever was with Pakistan. Infact, today Pakistan is no more a factor in Indian polity. Tough there are a minority to try to use Pakistan and anti muslim sentiment for political gains but today Indians refuse such propaganda. Best example is recent bypolls where BJP tried to raise religious jingoism and lost badly. On da contrary, BJP won almost whole India by talking bout Development and progress.

      For Indians, IWT itself is illogical. Its not a zero sum game that we hv to share limited water. Its a continuous flow from Himalyas and hence, either Dam or not, volume of water flowing in Arabian sea will be same. For Eg: If I am filling water in a drum at particular volume. Now, if I put a bucket in between, the water will cease to fill the drum coz that tym its filling the bucket. But once the bucket is full, it will overflow and do notice, the volume of water after overflow will be same to that w/o bucket. Also, if we build Dams or not, if a flood situation due to heavy rains is to occur, it will occur.

      Hence, if u see, Dam issue is technically a non issue and u dont need to be a rocket scientist to understand this. Still, its unfortunate that Pakistanis blindly believe stuff w/o questioning and analysing.

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